List of Renamed Indian cities



Renaming of cities in India started in 1947, following the end of the British imperial period in India, and continues today. Several changes were politically controversial, and not all proposed changes were implemented. Each had to be approved by the central government in New Delhi.

1. Chennai, formerly Madras, renamed in 1996

2. Jabalpur, formerly Jubbulpore, renamed in 1947

3. Kanpur, formerly Cawnpore, renamed in 1948

4. Kochi, formerly Cochin, renamed in 1996

5. Kolkata, formerly Calcutta, renamed in 2001

6. Mumbai, formerly Bombay, renamed in 1995

7. Puducherry, formerly Pondicherry, renamed in 2006

8. Thiruvananthapuram, formerly Trivandrum, renamed in 1991

9. Vadodara, formerly Baroda, renamed in 1974

10. Varanasi, formerly Benares

11. Guwahati, formerly Gauhati

12. Indore, formerly Indhur

13. Kozhikode, formerly Calicut

14. Panaji, formerly Panjim

15. Pune, formerly Poona

16. Sagar, formerly Saugor

17. Shimla, formerly Simla

18. Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore

19. Thoothukudi, formerly Tuticorin

20. Thrissur, formerly Trichur

21. Tiruchirapalli,formerly Trichinopoly or its shortened version, Trichy

22. Udhagamandalam,formerly Ootacamund or its shortened version, Ooty

23. Vijayawada, formerly Bejawada

24. Visakhapatnam, formerly Waltair and before that, Vizagapatnam or its shortened version, Vizag

25. Avantika to Ujjain

26. Vorugallu to Warangal

27. Cambay to Khambhat

28. Bulsar to Valsad

29. Bangalore to Bengaluru (change effective from 1 November 2006)

30. Bhopal Bairagarh to Sant Hirda Ram Nagar, Bhopal

31. Jullunder to Jalandhar

32. Ropar to Rupnagar

33. Mohali to SAS Nagar

34. Nawan Shahar to Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar

35. Cape Comorin to Kanyakumari

Beam Engine


  • A beam engine is a type of steam engine where a pivoted overhead beam is used to apply the force from a vertical piston to a vertical connecting rod. 
  • The first beam engines were water-powered, and used to pump water from mines. A 'preserved' example may be seen at Wanlockhead, in Scotland. 
  • Beam engines were extensively used to power pumps on the English canal system when it was expanded by means of locks early in the Industrial Revolution, and also to drain water from mines in the same period, and as winding engines.




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World’s best thermometer made from light


Researchers made world's best thermometer from light.



World’s best thermometer made from light


Article source: http://www.adelaide.edu.au/news/

University of Adelaide physics researchers have claimed that they have produced the world's most sensitive thermometer  which is three times more precise than the best thermometers in existence.

Published in the journal Physical Review Letters , the researchers from the University's Institute for Photonics and Advanced Sensing (IPAS) report they have been able to measure temperature with a precision of 30 billionths of a degree.

"We believe this is the best measurement ever made of temperature − at room temperature," says project leader Professor Andre Luiten, Chair of Experimental Physics in IPAS and the School of Chemistry and Physics, pointing out that it is possible to make more sensitive measurements of temperature in cryogenic environments (at very low temperatures) near absolute zero.

"We've been able to measure temperature differences to 30 billionths of a degree in one second," says Professor Luiten. "To emphasise how precise this is, when we examine the temperature of an object we find that it is always fluctuating. We all knew that if you looked closely enough you find that all the atoms in any material are always jiggling about, but we actually see this unceasing fluctuation with our thermometer, showing that the microscopic world is always in motion."

The paper -- Nano-Kelvin Thermometry and Temperature Control: Beyond the Thermal Noise Limit -- describes a new and very sensitive, but unorthodox, thermometer that uses light to measure temperature. PhD candidate Wenle Weng carried out the work.




World’s best thermometer made from light


The thermometer injects two colours of light (red and green) into a highly polished crystalline disk. The two colours travel at slightly different speeds in the crystal, depending on the temperature of the crystal.

"When we heat up the crystal we find that the red light slows down by a tiny amount with respect to the green light," Professor Luiten says.

"By forcing the light to circulate thousands of times around the edge of this disk in the same way that sound concentrates and reinforces itself in a curve in a phenomena known as a "whispering gallery" -- as seen in St Paul's Cathedral in London or the Whispering Wall at Barossa Reservoir -- then we can measure this minuscule difference in speed with great precision."

Professor Luiten says the researchers have developed a new technique which could be redesigned for ultra-sensitive measurements of other things such as pressure, humidity, force or searching for a particular chemical.

"Being able to measure many different aspects of our environment with such a high degree of precision, using instruments small enough to carry around, has the capacity to revolutionise technologies used for a variety of industrial and medical applications where detection of trace amounts has great importance," Professor Luiten says.

The research is supported by the Australian Research Council and the South Australian Government's Premier's Science and Research Fund.


A close-up view of the “Light Thermometer” – the green and red light are forced to circle around the edge of the polished crystal thousands of times; a slight difference in the speed of the green and red light can tell us the temperature.

12 Best Music Apps for iPhone Users

Here is a list of 12 mind blowing music apps that will turn your iPhone into a powerhouse of music.

1. Bloom
bloom

Bloom is an interesting and innovative iPhone app which lets you create music and melodies by simply touching and tapping on the screen. The app features a colorful screen which combines artwork and instrument with composition. It can in fact create compositions on its own if left idle along with some stunning visualizations. Other features include 9 different mood settings, random mood shuffle, shake to clear, adjustable delay and much more. It's like an endless music machine. The price is a reasonable $3.99.
Download Bloom iPhone app

2. Chordmaster
chordmaster

Chordmaster is another great app for music lovers that puts a huge library of more than 7,800 guitar chords at their disposal. It displays a virtual fretboard complete with notes and fingerings and virtual chords in various positions on the fretboard. You can strum the strings, in fact even tap individual strings to to hear the specific notes just like in a real guitar. It is priced at $1.99.
Download Chrodmaster iPhone app

3. cleartune
cleartune

Cleartune is a seriously cool iPhone app which helps you tune any musical instrument using your iPhone (or iPod touch which has an external mic). It is a powerful chromatic tuner which displays a note wheel and a fine-tuning meter, both of which let you find the right pitch and tune for your musical instrument. You can tune stuff like acoustic guitar, electric guitar, piano, brass..almost any musical instrument available. The price you pay is $3.99.
Download Cleartune iPhone app

4. Lyrical

If you like checking out the lyrics of a song as much as you like listening to it then Lyrical is a must have iPhone app for you. It automatically finds the lyrics of any song you are playing and also lets you view it offline. You can search for a song lyrics by artist, title or if you just remember some lines from the song, that's enough for lyrical to fetch the corresponding song lyrics. And it's free too !
Download Lyrical iPhone app

5. Pocketguitar
Guitar-App

If you love playing guitar, you'd love PocketGuitar too. It turns your iPhone into a guitar, rather a virtual guitar which you can actually play like a real guitar. Yes, you could press & strum strings and get the real guitar feeling. Choose sounds from 6 different instruments like Electric Guitar, Classical Guitar, Electric Bass and more. Also choose effects like Chorus, Distortion etc. The best part - it's relatively cheap at $0.99.
Download PocketGuitar iPhone app

6. Last.fm

Last.fm, the immensely popular social music site is on the iPhone too. The Last.fm iPhone app lets you access your Last.fm account on the iPhone and listen to your favorite tracks. You can get the music recommendations according to your taste, add tracks to your playlist, purchase tracks directly from iTunes, tag the tracks, share them with the Last.fm community and much more. Certainly offers great features at a great price - $0.
Download the Last.fm iPhone app

7. Midomi Ultra
midomi

Midomi Ultra is a pretty cool iPhone app which can identify music in a snap. You just need to take your iPhone near a speaker and it can identify a song in as fast as 5 seconds. Hence it works like Shazam, identifying music through the iPhone's microphone and naming the song, artist and other stuff. But there are some differences and as the iPhone blog points out, Midomi takes music identification to the next level. That's why it costs $4.99.
Download Midomi iPhone app

8. Ocarina
Ocarina makes one of the most unique uses of iPhone's and iPod touch's touchscreen by turning it into a flute which you can play with your fingers. You can blow into the mic and tap the four virtual holes on the screen, all of which give a cool experience of playing a real flute ( atleast to those who have never touched a flute ). In fact users of the Ocarina community can hear what you are playing in the globe mode. The cost of the app - $0.99.Download Ocarina iPhone app

9. Pandora
pandora

The Pandora iPhone app is the iPhone version of the free personalized radio which is completely integrated with your web based Pandora account. It is easy to use and offers all the Pandora features. You can create a station from the current song or artist, tap the album art to get more information, email the station to a friend, bookmark songs and artists, buy tracks from iTunes and get a nice view in the landscape mode by rotating your iPhone.
Download Pandora iPhone app

10. Pianist





Pianist, as the name suggests, transforms your iPhone into a full fledged 88-key piano. You can play the virtual piano, compose and record music for a playback later, zoom into the keyboard to take a better look and access complex piano features with rich 3D graphics. Obviously it's difficult to imagine the instrument of the size of a piano on a tiny iPhone, but nonetheless this app with its cool features tries its best to create the feel. Cost - $3.99.

Download Pianist iPhone app

11. Shazam

Shazam is an innovative iPhone app that cures your " What was that song ? " problem. It happens to all of us, isn't it. We hear a song, love it, know we have heard it before but just can't recall it. With Shazam you don't need to. Just hold your iPhone near the speakers of the device playing that music. Through iPhone's microphone Shazam gets hold of that song and identifies the album, artist and song title for you. Cool, isn't it ? Oh, and it's free too.

Download Shazam iPhone app

12. Slacker

Slacker gives you access to unlimited free music on your iPhone. It is easy to use and has an elegant user interface. It can stream music from millions of songs from a huge number of artists in its library. You could also listen to over 100 expert programmed radio stations or create your own custom station. The sound quality is great and it certainly emerges as a tough competitor for Pandora. It's free to download.

Download Slacker iPhone app

Via: brainz.org